Below are examples of common APA citation formats. For the most authoritative guide to APA format, please consult the style manual. There is a copy at the Reference Desk.
Please note that this is the 6th edition. Your professor may specify which edition you should use for your citations.
A note about online sources: The APA 6th edition does not require URLs or database information for articles from a database. If you find an article on the "open web" (that is, you found it using a search engine such as Google), you need the URL of the article. If you have a doi (digital object identifier), include it at the end instead of the source URL.
To create correct citations, ask yourself:
Still need help figuring out whether you need a URL or doi? The APA has published this flowchart on their blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/
Article found in a database or in print, with one author:
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), pages.
Pajares, F. (2001). Toward a positive psychology of academic motivation.
Journal of Educational Research, 95(1), 27-35.
Article found on the open web, with one author:
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume if available
(issue if available), pages if available. doi: OR Retrieved from URL
Cohen, P. (2009, October 9). Author's personal forecast: Not always sunny, but
pleasantly skeptical. The New York Times. Retrieved from
Article (from the open web) with two authors:
Lastname, F. M., & Surname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal,
volume (issue), pages. doi: OR Retrieved from URL
Norem, J. K., & Chang, E. C. (2002). The positive psychology of negative
thinking. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(9), 993-1001.
Article with three to six authors:
Lastname, F. M., Surname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of
article. Title of Journal, volume (issue), pages.
Jutras, S., Vinay, M. C., & Castonguay, G. (2002). Inner-city children's
perceptions about well-being. Canadian Journal of Community
Mental Health, 21(1), 47-65.
More than seven authors? List the first six authors and the last author.
Authorone, F. M., Authortwo, F. M., Authorthree, F. M., Authorfour, F. M.,
Authorfive, F. M. . . . Finalauthor, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of
Journal, volume (issue), pages.
Book with one author:
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publication Location:
Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology
to realize your potential for deep fulfillment. London: Nicholas Brealey.
Books with multiple authors:
The format follows the author format as listed under articles.
An edited book:
Editor, F. M. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publication Location:
Snyder, C.R. & Lopez, S. J. (Eds.). (2009). The Oxford handbook of positive
psychology. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Web site with one author:
Lastname, F. M. (Date published). Title of page. Retrieved from URL
Lopez, S. J. (2000). The emergence of Positive Psychology: The building
of a field of dreams. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/apags/profdev/pospsyc.html
Web site with a corporate or organizational author:
Organization name. (Date published). Title of page. Retrieved from URL
Positive Psychology Center. (2007). Attributional style research (Adults).
Retrieved from http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/asq.htm
Image from an online source with a creator listed:
Creator, F. M. (Date created). Title of image [Description of image]. Retrieved
[date] from URL
Swanbrow, D. (2008, July 23). A happiness ranking of 97 nations [table]. Retrieved
January 21, 2010 from http://www.ur.umich.edu/0708/Jul14_08/23.php
Image from an online source with no creator listed:
Title of image [Description of image]. (Date created). Retrieved [date] from URL
Image from a print source with a creator listed:
Creator, F. M. (Date created). Title of image. [Continue with title of book or article as appropriate.]
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