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Describes how to narrow and adjust your search results. It also includes the "Verbatim" limiter, which is helpful when Google returns results with unwanted synonyms for your search terms, or when Google does not include all of your search terms in your results.
Results of a linkto: search. A student located this excellent report on their topic, but was overwhelmed by the 300 page report, which was too much information for her topic. We used this technique to locate more suitable information that referenced the original report.
A student located a PowerPoint presentation online but didn't note the citation information. She remembered it was a PowerPoint presentation on diabetes in the elderly. Specifying the file type in the search turned up the item quickly. You can also do this for doc, pdf, and other formats.
Using the site: limiter, we can limit results to only .gov web sites. This can also be used for .edu sites, and can even limit to a specific directory on a page, such as site:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.
Using the minus sign before a term in your search eliminates the term from your search results. In this case, the results include pages discussing caffeine and health, but that do not include discussion of tea.
This search looks for pages with information on caffeine, but with the word "health" in the title of the page. Results may also include caffeine in the title (thanks to Google's search algorithms that privilege pages with search terms in the title), but all results will have health in the title.
Discontinued June 2013. Using the tilde before one of our terms broadened searches and brought back results for terms similar to our search terms. In this example, ~caffeine returned results for coffee as well. Because Google is determining related terms, we had less control over the results than we would if we use the OR operator.