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HIS 314: 17th and 18th Century European Cultural History, Prof. Rusnock

This is a guide to support research in HIS 314

A Summary of Sources

Research comes in many different forms, and certain topics--especially research papers--will require more specialized information than others. Popular sources include magazines and newspapers (periodicals) and should be used sparingly within research unless required by your professor or your topic. Scholarly articles are among the most common sources that will be used for undergraduates but other majors such as, Engineering or Nursing, will periodically require the use of Trade and Professional Journals for their research.

Remember, if you ever get lost, ask a librarian!

Comparing Source Types

 Scholarly Journals

(Peer-Reviewed/Refereed)

Examples

 

Atmospheric & Oceanic Science Letters        BMC Medical Ethics

 

Content
  • Scholarly Journals (like those above) contain in-depth, peer-reviewed, specific, and original research and are written with the intent of scholarly communication. Abstracts will typically be present depending on the subject field. 
  • Language contains specialized terminology or jargon from the field.
  • Provides qualitative/quantitative data (e.g. charts, graphs, & tables)
  • References are required -- all citations are verifiable.
Peer-Reviewed

        "Peer-reviewed" articles have been reviewed by other professionals within the field. They have been thoroughly
         examined by other experts to ensure scientific quality and accuracy.

Author

        The author's credentials are (usually) provided; typically the institution where the author(s) worked when the article was
        published. The author(s) is usually a scholar or specialist with subject expertise.

Audience         Scholars, researchers, or students
Example Article A long postreproductive life span is a shared trait among genetically distinct killer whale populations.
Source/Journal Title

        Ecology & Evolution

Authors
  • Nielsen, Mia Lybkær Kronborg1
  • Ellis, Samuel1
  • Towers, Jared R.2
  • Doniol‐Valcroze, Thomas2
  • Franks, Daniel W.3
  • Cant, Michael A.4
  • Weiss, Michael N.1,5
  • Johnstone, Rufus A.6
  • Balcomb, Kenneth C.5
  • Ellifrit, David K.5
  • Croft, Darren P.1
Author Credentials         1Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
        2Pacific Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Vancouver BC,, Canada
        3Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK
        4College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK
        5Center for Whale Research, Friday Harbor WA,, USA
        6Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
References Included         An extensive list of references included

 

Professional Journals

Examples

 

Texas Nursing Magazine                    

 

Content
  • Professional journals (like Trade Journals) focus primarily on current news and trends in a specific profession; contains practical information for those working within the field.
  • Contains specialized jargon suited to the profession but is not as technical as a scholarly journal.
  • Can contain qualitative/quantitative information; can/will contain photographs and advertisements targeting professionals.
  • References are not required; and, when they are included, are often brief.
Author        Usually a professional or practitioner in the field
Audience        Professionals in the field; interested non-professionals
Example Article Trauma-Informed Care: Are We There Yet?
Source/Publication Title        Texas Nursing
Author        Pam Green
Author's Credentials        Director of the Texas Nursing Association
References Included        Seven listed at the end

Trade Journals

Examples

 

                    

 

Content
  • Trade journals focus primarily on current news and trends in a specific industry; contains practical information for those working within the industry.
  • Contains specialized jargon suited to the industry but is not as technical as a scholarly journal.
  • Can contain qualitative/quantitative information; can/will contain photographs and advertisements targeting industry professionals.
  • References are not required; and, when they are included, are often brief.
Author        May be a professional in the field or a writer with some subject experience
Audience        Professionals in the field; interested non-professionals
Example Article 2022 LIBRARY DESIGN SHOWCASE: The year's most impressive new and renovated libraries.
Source/Publication Title        American Libraries
Author        Sallyann Price
Author's Credentials        Over a decade of interviewing and writing experience in nonprofits, public affairs, and professional
       associations. 
References Included        None

 

Popular Sources

(Magazines/Newspapers/Other Media)

Examples

 

Time Magazine, Person of the Year 2021          National Geographic          People Magazine

 

Content
  • Primary purpose is to entertain or inform for a general audience. Research is typically secondary by nature; may include personal narratives or opinions. 
  • Language is informal; easily understandable to most readers.
  • Can contain qualitative/quantitative information; will often contain colorful/vivid photographs and advertisements.
  • References are rare; very little, if any, information is provided.
Author        Authors are typically journalists paid to write articles who are not experts in any particular field.
Audience        General public; interested non-specialists
Example Article Mark Hamill Explains Why 'Star Wars' Came Up in Conversation with Ukraine's Volodymyr Zelenskyy
Source        People Magazine
Author        Ryan Parker
Author's Credentials        Senior News Editor, Weekends
References Included        None

 

Scholarly and Popular Sources

Created and Updated

Created by M. Keefe, 12/00

Revised by A. Izenstark, 6/05, 5/10, 6/11

Revised by C. Cassaday 10/22

Based on Scholarly, Trade, and Popular Sources, GSU Library

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.