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Citing Correctly and Avoiding Plagiarism

This is a guide to resources about avoiding plagiarism and citing sources correctly.

Examples of MLA Format, 9th Edition

Below are examples of common MLA citation formats. For the most authoritative guide to MLA format, please consult the style manual, linked below.

 

Here are some of the changes in the latest version of MLA Style:

  • Bibliographic citations are required to have two containers when using a source within a source.

  • Additional information on formatting lists, identifying collaborative projects, and presenting tables and figures and documenting their sources.

  • Additional guidance for creating Works Cited pages:

    • Include www. or http:// or https:// on Works Cited page

    •  When the publication date of a citation is seasonal, ensure that the season is lowercase.

 

Articles

Article (from a database) with one author:

Lastname, First M.  "Title of Article." Title of Publication, vol. #, no. #, date, pages. Name of Database, URL.

Example:

Geuss, Raymond. "Happiness and Politics." Arion: A Journal of Humanities

and the Classics, vol. 10, no. 1, spring-summer 2002, pp. 15-33. JSTOR,

www.jstor.org/stable/20163869.

 

Article (print) with one author:

Lastname, First M.  "Title of Article." Title of Publication, vol. #, no. #, date, pages. 

Example:

Fromm, Erich. "What is Happiness?" Science Digest, vol. 39, March 1956, pp. 43-7.

 

Article (found using Google) with one author:

Lastname, First M.  "Title of Article." Title of Publication or Overall

Website, vol. #, no. #, date, pages [if available], URL.

Example:

Cohen, Patricia. "Author's Personal Forecast: Not Always Sunny But

Pleasantly Skeptical." New York Times, 9 Oct.

2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/10/10/books/10ehrenreich.html.

 

Article (from a publisher website with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)) with two authors:

Lastname, First M., and Firstname M. Surname. "Title of Article." Title of

Publication, vol. #, no. #,  date, pages. Name of publishing site or database, DOI. 

Example:

Lykken, David and Auke Tellegen. "Happiness is a Stochastic Phenomenon."

Psychological Science, vol. 7, no. 3, May 1996: 186-189. SAGE Journals,

doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1996.tb00355.x.

 

Article (from a database) with three authors:

Lastname, First M., Annie B. Surname, and Anon Y. Mous. "Title of Article." Title of

Publication, vol. #, no. #,  date, pages. Name of publishing site or database, URL.

 

More than three authors? List all authors or use the format below:

Authorone, First M. et. al. "Title of Article." Title of Publication, vol. #, no. #, date, pages.

Name of publishing site or database, URL.

 

Books

Book with one author, published after 1900:

Lastname, First M.  Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publisher, Date. 

Example:

Munro, Alice. Too Much Happiness: Stories. Yale UP, 2009. 

 

Book with one author, published before 1900:

Lastname, First M.  Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Location, Publisher, Date. 

Example:

Beecher, Catharine E. Letters to the People on Health and Happiness. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1855.

 

Books with multiple authors, published after 1900:

The author name format follows the author format as listed under articles. Follow the rest of the format for books.

 

An edited book, published after 1900:

Editor, First M., editor. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publisher, Date.

Example:

Cahn, Steven M., and Christine Vitrano, editors. Happiness: Classic and

Contemporary Readings in Philosophy. Oxford UP, 2007. 

 

An online book published after 1900:

Lastname, First M.  Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publisher, Date. URL.

Example:

McMahon, Darrin M. Happiness: A History. Grove Press, 2006. 

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0802142893.

 

An online book published before 1900 (requires listing the publication location):

Lastname, First M.  Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Location, Publisher, Date. URL.

Example:

Wainewright, William. On the Elements of Human Happiness. London, William

Skeffington, 1857. books.google.com/books?id=51cCAAAAQAAJ.

 

Websites & Pages

Website with one author and publication date:

Author, Firstname M. Title of Site. Publication date, URL.

Example:

Veenhoven, Ruut. World Database of Happiness. 1984-2014, worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/. 

 

Website with a corporate or organizational author and publication date:

Title of Site. Sponsor of Site, publication date. URL. 

Example:

Well-Being Concepts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,

31 May 2016. www.cdc.gov/hrqol/wellbeing.htm.

 

Website with a corporate author but no publication date:

Title of Site. Sponsor of Site. URL. Accessed date.

Example:

Why Happiness. Action for Happiness. www.actionforhappiness.org/why-happiness.

Accessed 26 Aug. 2016.

 

Web page with a corporate author but no publication date:

"Title of page." Title of Site. Corporation Name. URL. Accessed date.

Example:

"Happiness" Employee Health & Fitness Program. City of Eugene, City

Manager's Office. www.eugene-or.gov/2535/Happiness. Accessed 6 Jan. 2017.

 

Images

Image from an online source with a creator listed:

Creator, First M. Title of Image or Description of Image. Date created, URL.  

Example:

Gelman, Andrew. Average Happiness as a Function of Age, from General

Social Survey. 26 Dec. 2010, andrewgelman.com/2010/12/26/age_and_happine/.

 

Image from an online source with a title, but no creator listed:

Title of Image or Description of Image. Date created, URL.

Example:

Smiling Woman at Desk. 13 Aug. 2013, www.bbc.com/news/business-23640900.

 

Image from a print source with a creator listed:

Creator, First M. Title of image or Description of Image. Date created,  [Continue the remainder of the citation

with title of book or article as appropriate].

Recent MLA Style Center Blog Posts

Want to see the latest updates to MLA style, straight from the source? Check out the MLA Style Center blog posts through the links below!

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Updated by Reina Kirkendall, 12/21

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.