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Citing Correctly and Avoiding Plagiarism

This is a guide to resources about avoiding plagiarism and citing sources correctly.

Examples of Chicago Style, 17th ed., Humanities (Notes-Bibliography)

Below are examples of common Chicago style citation formats used in the Humanities. For the most authoritative guide to Chicago style, please consult the style manual, which is linked below.

Please note that this is what is often referred to as the "Humanities" style, or "Notes-Bibliography" format. Your professor will specify which format you should use for your citations.

A note about online sources: For any article or material you find online you will need the item's DOI or URL. A DOI is preferable to a URL when available.

To create correct citations, ask yourself:

  1. Did I find the full text of this in print? If yes, no URL is needed.
  2. Did I find the full text of this in a database or on the open web? If yes, the DOI or URL is needed.

Articles 

Article with one author:

Notes

  1. Firstname, Lastname, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume, No. (Issue Date): Pages, DOI/URL if applicable.

Example:

  1. Albert T. Klyberg, "Collecting, Preserving, and Sharing Rhode Island History: 175 Years," Rhode Island History 55, no. 3 (August 1997): 92, http://www.rihs.org/assetts/files/publications/1997_Aug.pdf.

Bibliography

Lastname, First M. "Title of article." Title of Journal volume, no. (issue date): pages, DOI/URL if applicable.

Example:

Klyberg, Albert T. "Collecting, Preserving, and Sharing Rhode Island History: 175 Years."

Rhode Island History 55, no. 3 (August 1997): 88-99,

http://www.rihs.org/assetts/files/publications/1997_Aug.pdf

 

Article (online) with two authors:

Notes

  1. Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume, No. (Issue Date): Pages, DOI/URL if applicable.

Example:

  1. Ruth W. Herndon and Ella W. Sekatau. "The Right to a Name: The Narragansett People and Rhode Island Officials in the Revolutionary Era," Ethnohistory 44, no. 3 (1997): 73, https://doi.org/10.2307/483031.

Bibliography

Lastname, First M., and Firstname M. Surname.  "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, no.

(issue date): pages, URL. 

Example:

Herndon, Ruth W., and Ella W. Sekatau. "The Right to a Name: The Narragansett People and Rhode Island

Officials in the Revolutionary Era." Ethnohistory 44, no. 3 (1997): 70-76,

https://doi.org/10.2307/483031.

 

Article with three or more authors (list all authors in the order listed on
the publication):

Notes

  1. Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume, No. (Issue Date): Pages, DOI/URL if applicable.

Example: 

  1. Joel Mokyr, Chris Vickers, and Nicolas L. Ziebarth, "The History of Technological Anxiety and the Future of Economic Growth: Is This Time Different?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 29, no. 3 (Summer 2015): 34, doi.org/10.1257/jep.29.3.31.

Bibliography

Lastname, Frank M., Frances M. Surname, John R. Smith, and Jane M. Doe.  

"Title of article." Title of Journal volume, no. (issue date): pages.

DOI/URL as applicable.   

Example:

Mokyr, Joel, Chris Vickers, and Nicolas L. Ziebarth. "The History of Technological Anxiety and the Future of Economic

Growth: Is This Time Different?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 29, no. 3 (Summer 2015): 31-

50. doi.org/10.1257/jep.29.3.31

 

Books

Book with one author:

Notes

  1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Pub. location: Publisher, Year), Pages.

Example:

  1. J. Stanley Lemons, The First Baptist Church in America (Providence, RI: Charitable Baptist Society, 1988), 34-45.

Bibliography

Lastname, First M. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publication Location:

Publisher, Year.

Example:

Lemons, J. Stanley.  The First Baptist Church in America.  

 Providence, R.I.: Charitable Baptist Society, 1988. 

 

Books with multiple authors:

The format follows the author format as listed under articles.

 

An edited book:

Notes

  1. Firstname Lastname, ed., Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Pub. location: Publisher, Year), Pages.

Example:

  1. Carolyn Livingston and Dawn Elizabeth Smith, eds., Rhode Island's Musical Heritage: An Exploration (Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2008), 27, 65. 

Bibliography

Editor, First M., ed.  Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publication Location:

Publisher, Year.

Example:

Livingston, Carolyn, and Dawn Elizabeth Smith, eds. Rhode Island's

Musical Heritage: An Exploration. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie

Park Press, 2008. 

 

Websites 

Citations for websites may be limited to the Notes section of a work. If your work does not have a Notes section, then include the citation in the bibliography. 

Notes

  1. "Title of page," Author (if indicated), Publisher, Date modified/accessed, URL.

Example:

  1. "Full Fort Adams History: The Revolutionary War," Fort Adams and the Fort Adams Trust, accessed February 4, 2021, https://fortadams.org/discover-the-fortress/fort-adams-history/full-history/.

Bibliography

Author (if indicated). "Title of page." Publisher. Date modified/accessed. URL.

Example:

"Full Fort Adams History: The Revolutionary War." Fort Adams and the Fort Adams Trust. Accessed February 4,

2021. https://fortadams.org/discover-the-fortress/fort-adams-history/full-history/ 

 

Images

In this format, images are only listed in the Notes, not in the Bibliography.

Image from an online source with a creator listed:

  1. Creator, First M., Title of Image, Date created/accessed, URL.

Example:

  1. Fabergé, Lilies of the Valley Egg, 1898, accessed February 4, 2021, https://www.faberge.com/the-world-of-faberge/the-imperial-eggs.

Posts from the CMOS Shop Talk Blog

Citation and research tips and tricks from the Chicago Manual of Style Shop Talk Blog.

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