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The Changing Face/Space of the Library: eBooks, Makerspaces, and More : Open Access / Open Source

Companion site to the April 29, 2014 OLIS Multi-Type Reference Advisory Group & Resource Sharing Group Joint Program.

Open Access - Open Source

Andree Rathemacher, facilitator

(Head of Acquisitions, URI Libraries)

Open Access, Open Source: Selected Resources

Open Access - Open Source

What does “open access” mean to you?

OPEN = free  or copyright free

            Things like PubMed Central

OPEN = space can be open


OPEN Access – can refer to information resources like scholarly articles

            (example definition: Peter Suber – Literature which is digital, online, free of copyright or other restrictions)

OPEN Source - (example: Wiki development model - access to designs/blueprint/code + any improvements are re-shared [Evergreen as OPEN ILS]

OPEN Educational Resources (examples: Kahn Academy; Wm & Flora Hewlett Foundation)

            public domain; free use as well as repurposing, not just use/reuse

            textbooks, courses, streaming media, modules, tests, etc. - access to knowledge

            some states now mandate K-12 use of open courseware/open ed. resources


Can be customized; turned into other things; syllabus/software-code; lib guides

When is just USING not enough for students/patrons?

Educational resources posted in Sakai/Blackboard are in a closed, paywall universe


Openness aided by:

Creative Commons (CC-BY= attribution) -

            Creator maintains control but lightly; available for reuse

As volume of information grows - impossible for even experts to read all we need

            Prosthetic eyeballs - let robot read and digest for us;

                                                humans can't read fast enough now

            Google Book Search - copy and index (search is a Fair Use)

Examples of Big Data analysis using Open Data:

Text2Genome - 3 MIL research papers - pulled into human genome map

Data Mining and repurposing/reformatting

SureCHEM - 20MIL patents

Drug Discovery - 20 MIL abstracts in MEDLINE - molecule common among Parkinsons articles; big data SETS show patterns if they can be processed


Digital Humanities - text mining (Ryan Cordell - newspapers - Northeastern U; )

Google Analytics - open data

OSTP Memo (Office of Science and Technology Policy)

            – mandating open access to Federal Research data from executive branch agencies; posting of data (not just research articles but the primary data on which they are based) at  

Build businesses on data mining

Google Scholar (It was noted that Providence College puts a copyright notice on material retrieved, just in case)

How do you know they (faculty / researchers) should have / could have posted this article?

Direct faculty posting venues:



(faculty may upload things where they've actually signed away their usage rights)

Elsevier policies (one of the largest publishers of scientific journals -- as of end of 2013) - author contract re copyright -- authors sign away content, not just use of edited/formatted copy -- BUT newer publisher policies allow use of pre-print copy by author & others




What does OPEN mean? 

            Free; digital/online

            Project Gutenberg (free Books)

            Government records; census data

            Open access journals - get it online free

Only free access, or is there more?

            ALSO free to reuse and repurpose

Use original as template for creativity / Reuse

            websites; libguides

            not just free to access/see/read

Open Source software:

            LINUX operating system

            Evergreen library system

            Drupal--community of users to help other users and

                        you learn from using and making mistakes too

Creative Commons - and software can be copyrighted


            Creator can freely choose to give CC license

                        - i.e. (CC-BY) attribution; non-commercial

Flickr, Google, etc. now allow CC searches or “free to reuse”

            (so you can find things that allow reuse)

            So creators still get credit, but not control

Free/Open Source Software for Libraries -

Evolution of shareware, the beginnings - Open Office

            these types of software continue to expand

example of “creative” reuse/remix: companions of Dr. Who parody songs - FairUse -- NEW work use

Creative products--innovations don't happen without reuse

            I made it, I should get the money.

            What about music composition or performance?; creative writing?

            Devastation of music industry; book publishers don't want to go there.

Scholarly vs creative work?

            Genetics article vs. Lahiri short story

            Public section funding - NSF/NIH/Public universities (faculty don't make money on journal articles; they receive recognition & prestige, plus a salary)

TED Talks - experts giving away their expertise - free

Scholarly publishers - monetize this research relationship



What is OPEN ?

            Adobe Reader - free, but not OPEN

Project Gutenberg

Mozilla (Open Source)

Internet Archive

Open Source - change it, improve it, redistribute the new creation

OER - teaching, learning, research resources

Free - not just to read, listen, view, but to repurpose

OPEN: encourages the new/innovation/growth

OER - instructors can create their own texts from modules/sections of various sources


Computer "reuses"

            researchers need reading "assistance" – automated text processors

            More and more information/articles - cannot keep up

            Peter Suber – Researchers need Prosthetic Eyeballs [“software that acts as the antennae, prosthetic eyeballs, research assistants, and personal librarians of all serious researchers." 2002;]


DNA sequences - 3MIL papers linked to genome map

NeuroSynth [

SureCHEM [ ] – open chemical patent searching by molecular structure


Digital Humanities:

Text mining is Fair Use, but if the texts are behind paywalls researchers can't get at them

Patterns too complex for humans to research in reasonable amount of time

Users have to be literate in how to use OPEN data

            (Looks COOL - but I don't know how to do it!)

            Project Gutenberg with patrons

            Internet Archive for a wide variety of texts. Both creative and non-fiction

How do we know something is FULLY open?

            webmaster might label

            Material published in the US before 1923

Creative Commons – some licenses are completely open; some have limitations

            -images are often users first contact with CC (Flickr)

[see above CC-BY, etc. -- these licenses are machine-readable!!]


Burrillville - town website -

            news and commentary and review uses are also FAIR Use - so if local newspaper reprinted piece of our newsletter article, that is probably allowed; also might be "work for hire" or quote of public official


OPEN source  images, designs, etc. - put the OPEN image information into the Makerspace world so people can find new things to use/reuse**********************




What is OPEN? - you can get it.; it’s free

            Project Gutenberg

            Open Office

            Peter Suber - not free beer (a thing to use), but free speech (a right to do something)

            Instructions for making a widget (open online)


OER (Open Educational Resources)- costs of textbooks is one factor driving this movement

Data, articles, books, etc - free -- not just to consume, but to reuse and repurpose and redistribute


In OPEN ACCESS movement, we have permissions ahead of time to DO something with it

Notions of openness - Library as creative space; what can be reused?

Creative reuse - computational reuse -

Text mining

Data mining

Google Books (huge corpus makes certain things possible)

1.5 MIL research articles published every year!! Humans can't keep up with this.

            (Isn't that what Faculty of 1000 is about?)

Text2Genome – DNA [ ]

Library of Congress  – Ryan Cordell - newspapers corpus

 [ ] - movement of reprinted text, mapped to expansion of the railroad; understand people's movement patterns; BIG GAPS - ProQuest and READEX have these locked down (no Massachusetts papers!!)

Richard Van Norden (2014-02-24) “Publishers withdraw more than 120 gibberish papers” [ ]


Digitizing yearbooks - who owns copyright?


Creative Commons (Larry Lessig)

 - give permissions for types of reuse [CC-zero - totally open]; machine readable so it can be harvested with license intact


Orphan works problem - copyrighted works where "owner" cannot be found/identified


How can OPEN help patrons?

            BiblioBoard - local author posting

            Overdrive - RI local authors - is this content open??

            Pathfinders - should we put CC license on these?

            Things of value - CC-BY -

                        issues with non-commercial - what about postings on sites with ads??

Open Access -- Cory Doctorow (CC licenses) books ]

When do creators/authors want/need to say "this is mine?" – maintain attribution vs maintain control for remuneration.

Tish Brennan, recorder (Head of Reference, James P. Adams Library)

Creative Commons License
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